An autoclave is a pressure chamber used to carry out industrial and scientific processes requiring elevated temperature and pressure different from ambient air pressure. Autoclaves are used in medical applications to perform sterilization and in the chemical industry to cure coatings and vulcanize rubber and for hydrothermal synthesis. Industrial autoclaves are used in industrial applications, especially regarding composites.
Many autoclaves are used to sterilize equipment and supplies by subjecting them to pressurized saturated steam at 121 °C (249 °F) for around 15–20 minutes depending on the size of the load and the contents The autoclave was invented by Charles Chamberland in 1884, although a precursor known as the steam digester was created by Denis Papin in 1679. The name comes from Greek auto-, ultimately meaning self, and Latin clavis meaning key, thus a self-locking device.
An examination table (or exam table) is used to support patients during medical examinations. During these exams, doctors in offices (UK: surgeries), clinics and hospitals use an adjusting mechanism to manipulate and position the table to allow patient support, closer examination of a portion or the entire patient, and the ability to move the patient on and off the table safely. Examination tables often have rolls of paper in which patients sit on, protecting the table.The paper is normally discarded after each patient uses the table. Examination tables have included electric motors since the 1970s. These are fitted underneath the tabletop and power cables generally detach to prevent a tripping hazard. The ability to transfer power forward and backwards using a reversible electric motor means greater mobility of the examination table.
Colposcopy (Ancient Greek: κόλπος, romanized: kolpos, lit. ‘hollow, womb, vagina’ + skopos “look at”) is a medical diagnostic procedure to examine an illuminated, magnified view of the cervix as well as the vagina and vulva. Many pre-malignant lesions and malignant lesions in these areas have discernible characteristics that can be detected through the examination. It is done using a colposcope, which provides a magnified view of the areas, allowing the colposcopist to visually distinguish normal from abnormal appearing tissue and take directed biopsies for further pathological examination. The main goal of colposcopy is to prevent cervical cancer by detecting and treating precancerous lesions early. The procedure was developed by the German physician Hans Hinselmann, with help from Eduard Wirths. The development of colposcopy involved experimentation on Jewish inmates from Auschwitz
Cauterization (or cauterisation, or cautery) is a medical practice or technique of burning a part of a body to remove or close off a part of it. It destroys some tissue in an attempt to mitigate bleeding and damage, remove an undesired growth, or minimize other potential medical harm, such as infections when antibiotics are unavailable.
The practice was once widespread for treatment of wounds. Its utility before the advent of antibiotics was said to be effective at more than one level:
Otorhinolaryngology /oʊtoʊˌraɪnoʊˌlærənˈɡɒlədʒi/ (also called otolaryngology or otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck. Doctors who specialize in this area are called otorhinolaryngologists, otolaryngologists, ENT doctors, ENT surgeons, or head and neck surgeons. Patients seek treatment from an otorhinolaryngologist for diseases of the ear, nose, throat, base of the skull, for the surgical management and reconstruction of cancers and benign tumors of the head and neck.